Every day we are confronted with the exalting appeal on deciding, whether unborn is a human being. We struggle to understand the value of life and to decide, whether life is more valuable than health or whether abortion is a medical or social problem. Furthermore, the question of whether a woman has right, or should have the right to perform an abortion, has been a source of discussion; some allow performing an abortion for their benefits, and some infuse their ideas ignorantly, indifferently, without considering the rights of unborn. I hold the view that human life is sacred and inviolable. And abortion is a social problem, not a medical problem. As a result, abortion is unjustifiable no matter the justification given or the anticipated objective in carrying out any form of abortion. The sacredness of human life is very clear in the canon of religious communities as well as in the charter of human rights. However, my interest in the abortion debate is to highlight certain ignorance, indifference, and the errors in the yes-to-abortion. Furthermore, I will show that there are many things society could easily do that would protect both women and unborn children, and preventing abortion from becoming a necessary consideration in these cases.
The reasons why women carry out abortions are diverse and vary across the world. Some of the most common reasons are to postpone childbearing to a more suitable time or to focus energies and resources on existing children. Others include being unable to afford a child either in terms of the direct costs of raising a child or the loss of income while caring for the child, lack of support from the father, inability to afford additional children, desire to provide schooling for existing children, disruption of one’s own education, relationship problems with their partner, a perception of being too young to have a child, unemployment, and not being willing to raise a child conceived as a result of rape or incest, among others. This paper discusses only induced abortion in the case of rape, deaths caused by unsafe abortion health of the mother.
There are three reasons for this decision. First, common questions arise in terms of difficult pro-abortion arguments dealt with matters of rape, the health of the mother in risk, and the death of the woman because of unsafe abortion. Second, in both public and private debate, arguments presented in favour of or against abortion access focus on either the moral permissibility of an induced abortion or justification of laws permitting or restricting abortion. Third, Induced abortion has long been the source of considerable debate, the debate continues, and the pro-abortionists seem to be winning. This work aims at supporting the anti-abortionists, who seemingly are the losing side, for many women are carrying out abortion. Furthermore, this work wishes to strengthen the argument of the anti-abortionists with the hope of deterring people from committing it.
Unborn in this discussion will be taken to refer to human being or person, who possesses the right to life. Much pro-choice belief is grounded in a notion that the unborn is not yet a complete human being, but after birth becomes a human being who deserves the right to life. Science, on the other hand, suggests the existence of human being as soon as sperm fertilizes the oven, (…..). Abortion in this paper is defined as the intentional termination of pregnancy by inducing the loss of the fetus (Lohr, Patricia A, et al.1), not every termination of pregnancy constitutes an act of abortion; the more usual, and happy; termination is the delivery of a live, healthy infant. Again, a surgical procedure that accidentally and unintentionally causes the death of the fetus does not count as abortion. Only those acts that intentionally end the pregnancy by inducing the loss of the fetus are properly classed as abortions. (Carl 157). An abortion that occurs spontaneously is known as a miscarriage or abortion on the medical field. But the word abortion is often used to mean only induced abortions (Lohr 2). The noun ignorance is not a synonym for ‘stupidity,’ since its meaning is closer to ‘being uninformed’ than ‘being unintelligent.’ Ignorance implies that a person or group needs to be educated on a particular subject (….). Therefore, for the lack of knowledge come the errors of judgment, or a wrong decision (…..). Finally, the indifference in this paper refers to the lack of interest in unborn.
Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal in 1975. The pre-independence laws of the country were those of Portugal and abortion was generally illegal under the Criminal Code (Decree of 16 September 1886, as amended). Under the Code, there were no stated exceptions to a general prohibition on the performance of abortions. However, general criminal law principles of necessity allowed the operation to save the life of a pregnant woman. Any person performing an illegal abortion, including the pregnant woman, was subject to imprisonment.
We cannot solve social problems medically or through abortion. In Mozambique, more than 21% of girls are pregnant or already have one at age 16. And more than 55% get pregnant or already have a child at age 18. In 2011, more than 10,000 Mozambican women were admitted to health facilities because of complications caused by unsafe abortions (…..). Using cooked up and biased research information by the abortion lobby group and be influenced by American people, the Mozambican government legalized the abortion, at least in case of rape and when woman’s health is in risk but now everyone is carrying out abortion for any reason. They did this not because they cared about women cases but it was out of corruption using abortion as a justification for their actions. This systematic yes of women’s rights to access abortion services is one of the most severe examples of institutional violence in regards to unborn and their rights in Mozambique.
The idea that abortion is a solution of social issues constitutes the source of many crimes against innocents. Domestic violence, rape, child marriage, and generally the position in traditional women in the society are among the other causes of abortion. If you work in government media or pay attention to article and conferences and organizations or any number of public discussions in Mozambique, suggest the problem of abortion can be solved medically, which is wrong. A killing of the human being can never be a solution. However, the abortion problem must be understood in a moral context. That is to say, people must address the problem of sexuality so that women can avoid unwanted pregnancies. Because it seems like the problem of abortion raise because of our ignorance concerning the issue of sexuality.
It is interesting to note that the deaths of women because of unsafe abortion and when the life of the mother is in danger, are arguably the most common objections used in support of the legalization of abortion in Mozambique. But B.Alvarez Manninen argues using Kant; ‘‘You must never use a human being as means, only as an end” (72). Abortion can lead to the attainment of certain goods, such as the health or life of the mother, in the reduction of death caused by unsafe abortion. However, it is still unjustifiable to use human life as a means to overcome our suffering. The right to life is greater than anything else according to the declaration of human rights. Hence, the bad effect of killing the unborn is far greater, not less than the good effect of preventing the health of the Mother.
In the case of rape, I recognize that someone who suffers rape faces many problems, psychologically, physically even spiritually. One could say it is unjust to force her to bear her own baby. However, I still think that it is not right to victimize others because we were victimized. Therefore to consider rape as a reason for legalization of abortion is wrong. Yet I do not think abortion helps the raped women but I do still think that abortion adds crime upon her by killing innocent who is unborn. What is necessary is not going to medical, but to have moral conduct in the society, the moral law so that can punish severely rapists.
If we do not legalize abortion, the women will continue to die by unsafe abortion because they carry out clandestinely. With this argument, we should also legalise robberies and others crimes because these people suffer a lot, they do not sleep, running from the police, but the government never defend them constitutionally, ‘‘the end does not justify the means’’!
Attention, I do not suggest that the mother’s health is irrelevant, but I am condemning the intentional killing of unborn even in the case of saving the mother from a serious illness. The life of the mother and child are both relevant. Thus, the child’s life should be preserved, and the mother’s health should be treated and preserved as well. The mother has the right to receive treatment. Saint Augustine says to Publicola (EP. X|VII):‘‘When we do a thing for a good and lawful purpose, if thereby we unintentionally cause harm to anyone, it should by no means be imputed to us.’’ In this case, it might happen that, while mother takes medication, and the child gets injured, even killed, but this is no justification for intentionally killing the child. If the child is injured or dies from the medication prescribed to the mother to save her life, the injury was unintentional, it is a tragedy or accident, therefore, it can be morally justifiable.
On the other hand, Donohue III makes a strong argument for the legalization of abortion, because “legalized abortion is a primary explanation for the large drops of crime, drops in murder, property crime, and violent crime.” (1), this because,
“In America before the legalization of abortion, many children who were born because their mother was denied an abortion were substantially more likely to be involved in crime and have power to life prospects, even when controlling for the income, age, education and health of the mother.” (388).
It is an apparently good point. Yet I find the statement above unsatisfactory. First, it takes American reality into the general. For instance, in Manica-Mozambique, women become criminals after performing an abortion. There are many cases where women kill their husbands; they do not respect their spouses. This is because the act of abortion in Mozambique changes the behaviour of some women in the world of criminals.
Secondly, there is an apparently flawed interchanging of the two concepts of abortion and crime. In my reply, I could say abortion is a double crime. That is, a murder because murder is usually defined as the act of intentionally taking a human life; and since the loss of the fetus clearly refers to the loss of a human fetus; abortion is the act of taking human life.
Nobody has the right to live in a human’s body. Moreover, Libertarianism, which has historically influenced a lot in promotion of abortion, many defenders to their ignorance, believe that woman has right to decide what to do with her body, therefore even in the case of abortion it is flexible the same rights. According to philosopher libertarian, Murray, “No being has a right to live, unbidden, as a parasite within or upon some person’s body,” and therefore the woman is entitled to eject the fetus from her body at any time.” (130) Perhaps Murray’s position appears at once biologically informed and logically consisted of feminism. However, it has at least an unfortunate moral even biological complication. First, it violates and ignores the nature of birth, because every birth requires to be within or upon person’s body, secondly, it seems to consider life has rubbish which woman can throw away anytime, is no longer a gift of God and therefore sacred; lastly, it violates the rights of unborn. Suppose himself again in the womb of his mother, his mother having these madness ideas; which kind of scrupulous can appear in him. On the other hand, the life of unborn for him, seems like a passport to important things, a source of vanities, but I strongly disagree, because God bestows life upon us as a gift, and it seems a mark of ingratitude or neglect to reject that gift, and it is a divine gift.
A very common claim of the pro-abortion movement is that “an embryo has no right to life” (Any 40). Again, this argument only works if we accept the error that embryo is not a human being. But Oduncu’s ‘‘Ethics of Healing,’’ suggests the existence of human being as soon as sperm fertilizes the oven, ultimately he suggests that unborn must be respected: ‘‘The human embryo is looked upon a human being from the moment of its conception and thus attributed the fundamental principle of human dignity that guarantees the right to life of the embryo” (12). In this regard, the right to abortion is an unnecessary evil, and it is unethical and illegal for it undermines a morally legitimate societal process. Finally, it is the killing of a human being, therefore, is a crime. finally it is a great contradiction to say, fetus is a child, that means a person, recognizing him human being, but to insist that they have no right to life, if you recognize that a fetus is a person, as we know a person has right to life, then the right should be applicable to all human beings even to the fetus.
The essential logical difficulty here is in the notion of removing a fetus from the womb, for acting to produce a death has nearly always had some other aim or justification ( ) freedom of woman, woman carries abortion, abortion so that the woman can avoid punishment from the parents who do not want to hear about pregnancy of the girl, maybe the parents were eagerly waiting for reward, for example ‘’lobola’’ protection of others interests or well-being. However,‘‘If my motives could never transcend my individual self-interest or the collective self-interest of my group, it could never be truly free. I could always be manipulated and compelled to act in specific ways by fear of punishment or hope of reward. (Avery I) As we can see the motives above are socials ones, for this reason, I do not think that medical mechanism can resolve socials issues. The society must support young girls must protect them, because some perform abortion not because they want but out fear. Therefore, I do not think, is right to justify the act of abortion as an exercise of freedom, but I do think that real freedom leads us to a certain truth. Freedom is meaningless and self-destructive if it is not used in the service of what is truly good. A freedom that dispenses itself from concern with the truth could only be a false and illusory freedom. (Avery 1). Why woman regret after carrying out abortion? Therefore an argument in favour of abortion using the word freedom is a manifestation of the lack of interest in unborn and ignorance concerning the concepts of freedom.
Preventing unintended pregnancy should be a priority for Mozambicans. That is to say, people must address the problem of sexuality so that women can avoid unwanted pregnancies. Because it seems like the problem of abortion raise because of our ignorance concerning the issue of sexuality. Our bad decision concerning sexuality. Educating women regarding their reproductive health should be incorporated in schools. Increasing contraceptive services is necessary; this includes providing accurate information choices and proper use of contraceptive methods. Governments and nongovernmental organizations need to find effective ways to overcome cultural and social misconceptions that restrict women from receiving necessary health care and pregnant women in order to give birth. The society must have moral conduct, as moral guidance so that can support those who suffer pressure from parents, boyfriend and some the society itself some shameful. Some carry out an abortion because they do not want to be isolated from normal life. A woman got pregnant (not deliberately) and wants to have an abortion by virtue of her bad financial and social background because she fears that she will be unable to offer the child an appropriate life perspective. In this case, the community should do everything possible to assist the woman if she wants to give birth to her child. Because are these cases which lead many women in Mozambique to carry out abortion.
In the light of the argument above, the work concludes that arguments in favour of abortion result from the ignorance and indifference to the unborn. Those who commit abortion and who argue in support of it do so from ignorance, therefore the arguments in support of abortion are faulty because they fail the truth and authenticity criterion. Factors like the fetus’ interests, the mother’s/father’s interests, the society’s interest and the future generation’s interest need to be captured in any true and authentic argument for abortion. This is because as Asouzu avers, an action is right only when it takes into consideration all the factors that will be affected by that action (48). For an argument in favour of abortion to be right, it must take into consideration all the factors that will be affected by the abortion. So far most of these theories do not. They emphasize one or two aspects and ignore the others.