Regional Canadian Geography

Introduction

By investigating the Canada Regional Geography, it is evident that the country is dominated by various regions which present the economic, the physical outlook, and the cultural diversity of the nation. From a periphery dimension, this paper aims to explore Ontario as the specific region in Canada (Bone, 2005). The paper provides an in-depth analysis of Ontario by looking at the physical as well as human features which prevail, and it incorporates the economic activities which matter for the prosperity of Ontario in the future.

Economic Activities

By describing the dominant economic activities in Ontario, the region focuses on the manufacturing, mining, forestry, and agriculture. However, manufacturing is the most dominant of all economic activities which prevail since Ontario is the leading province in the manufacturing of products. It estimates 46% of the nation’s Gross Domestic Product from the statistics which were obtained in 2014 (Bone, 2005). Ontario has been successful in manufacturing due to its positioning on the Canada as seen on the map below. The map shows that Ontario has a favorable climate which allows manufacturing to be successful in the region.

Natural ResourcesIn exploring the main natural resources in Ontario, it is evident that Ontario produces a variety of natural resources. The natural resources in Ontario include the Forest Industry which contains about eighty-five billion trees, and it provides the nation with an estimate of 14 billion dollars. Another resource is the fishing, which is done commercially in Ontario. The region has Great Lakes which are recognized to have various varieties of fish and the fishing regions make 80% of the fishing industry in the country (Steed & Brewis, 1971).

The Oil and Gas resources provide power within the region. Finally, the renewable energy which includes the solar panels, turbines, biogas, and biomass dominate the region. The table below shows how the natural resources dominate the region. Natural Resources Estimate in % Forest Industry Makes 55% of the region and provides $14 billion to the Canadian economy. Commercial Fishing Makes 80% of the country’s fishing Oil and Gas Makes 50% oil and gas wells Renewable energy Makes 50% of the Canadian renewable energy.

Mining of Copper, Zinc, Silver, and Uranium Make nations 65% production Population DensityThe Ontario’s population density is concentrated as seen in the graph below.[image: Image result]From the graph, the population of the province which was enumerated in 2011 was 12,851,821 which clarifies the region is concentrated and it entails almost 60% of the nation’s population. The region has a population density of 14.1 individuals in every square kilometer. Clearly, 80% of the people in Canada live in the urban areas.

Evidence for the Population Density

The Report provided by the Chief Public Health Officer in 2014 provides evidence that Ontario has been experiencing and increase in population hence impacts the Canadian public health. Clearly, the population has increased since 2001 due to the increased immigration. Most of the immigrants came to the region during the years they were in employment. At the same time, the fertility rate in the nation has as well increased hence the population experiences change. The graph below shows evidence how the population has changed in Ontario since 2001 by age. Clearly, the graph shows there was a population increase as outlined in the paper.

Growth Occurring in the Region

Growth is occurring to various increases in the population by different ages in Ontario from the evidence provided by the report of the Public Health Officer. To begin with, a low growth rate is experienced by 16.2% which represents 2.3 individuals and is expected to rise to 16.3 million people in the future ((Steed &Brewis,В 1971). At the same time, high growth in the population is occurring by 45.6%. In addition, many individuals in Ontario live in the urban areas hence the rural areas are sparsely populated.

Reasons for the Population Increases

In reference to the pattern of growth rate in population increases outlined, they occur due to various reasons. To begin with, the population projected due to the high rate of immigration which occurred in Ontario especially for individuals who were in the employment. Second, the fertility rate as well increased causing the population increases (Robinson, 1981). The medium growth projected due to the changes experienced in the economy of the region.

Core areas and the Peripheral areas

The urban areas can be viewed as the core areas which experience growth. These core areas in Ontario develop in regard to the geographic qualities. In addition, the transport and the communication networks are enhanced. These areas are also endowed with abundant resources, and there is good access to the markets and the population centers due to a large number of people living in the urban areas in Ontario (Robinson B. 1981).

Some of the urban areas are rooted since there are the administrative strategies and the political decisions which impact the growth. On the other hand, the rural areas are the peripheral areas in Ontario. The core and the peripheral areas contrast since the peripheral areas in Ontario are less populated hence they experience a low growth rate. They are less developed and also there is an uneven access and also uneven distribution of the resources.

The growth rate of Ontario’s economy

The economy of Ontario is rapidly growing as a result of its unique innovation, manufacturing expertise, resources, and exports. The Ontario region generates 37 percent of Canada’s GDP (Tedds, 2005). Also, half of all the workers in finance, high tech, and manufacturing come from the region. The rapid growth of the region’s economy can be attributed to the manufacturing industries which include biotech, autos, pharmaceuticals, information technologies and medical equipment. In 2011, the region’s manufacturing industries shipped goods worth 258 billion (Painter, 2006).

Moreover, Ontario is ranked after Texas and California in terms of the number of workers in the manufacturing industries. In terms of agriculture, the region has the biggest and best quality farms in Canada. Approximately, Ontario has more than 51, 950 farms and constitute a quarter of all the agricultural revenues generated in Canada. The forests in Ontario also contribute to the growth of the region’s economy by providing approximately 53,000 jobs.

Faultline in Ontario

Robert Bones identified various fault lines which include the French and the English division of languages, the Aboriginal, and the non-aboriginal discourse, and finally the centralist and the decentralist fault line (Bone, 2005). This paper explores the centralist and the decentralist fault lines which have been a great challenge in Ontario as well as in the entire country since it bases with the Canadian size.

By investigating the schools of thought, the centralist refers to an individual who facilitates control, strength, and power in Ontario while the decentralist refers to the individual who seeks to reinforce power in the region(Bone, 2005). Currently, the fault line is active hence the nation aims to provide protection to the manufacturing industries to ensure they are not impacted by the foreign products.

The fault line will remain active for the next ten years since the Canadian economy bases on the experts of the many products which include the timber and the minerals. Therefore, the high tariffs will be used to convince other nations to buy the Canadian products.

Challenges likely to face the people of Ontario

Despite the rapid economic growth, there are great challenges that are likely to face the people of Ontario in the coming ten years. Mainly, these challenges are social, economic, and demographic. Ontario is likely to hit a high level of unemployment in the next ten years. At the moment, there is a high number of college graduates who are struggling to find jobs in the region. A recent report from StatsCan indicated that the level of unemployment of people below the age of 24 has risen to 16.4 percent (Anderson, Dana, & Dana, 2006). Also, other recent documentations show that there is an increase in homelessness rates in some Ontario cities which include Kitchener, Sudbury, Brampton, Ottawa, and Hamilton. In the next ten years, the condition could even worsen is drastic measures are not taken.

How to overcome the challenges

Actually, the above challenges can be prevented. If the mass unemployment in the region is not dealt with, it could lead to some profound political and social implications. One way to reduce unemployment levels in the region is by creating part-time jobs. Part-time employees work for not more than 35 hours per week. In Asian nations, these programs have achieved tremendous success. In Korea, there are 623,000 people working part-time. These programs would also work in Ontario. The youths should also be trained and equipped with relevant technologies which will enable them to acquire new jobs in emerging industries.

By creating employment for the people in the region, the problem of homelessness will also be solved. The economy of Ontario is growing rapidly. However, the coming years may be disastrous for the people of the region if new job opportunities are not created. Ontario is considered as Canada’s economic base for two major reasons. To begin with, Ontario has a good resource base. For instance, the province generates hydroelectricity, and hence the industries in the region can access cheap energy (Anderson, Dana, & Dana, 2006). Geographically, the location of the province is relative compared to other United States markets.

In conclusion, Ontario might face significant challenges in the next ten years which regard the economy due to the rapid of immigration taking place in Canada. By investigating various incidences, it is clear that the country is clingy to the poor infrastructure as well as the mobility patterns due to the global immigration. Immigration may have positivity, but significantly, the economy will be compromised since the government will experience challenges in reshaping the economy for the increasing number of persons into the nation.

This challenge is paramount to the people in Ontario since the indigenous people are still experiencing the challenges in accessing the transportation such as the roads and the rail as well as there is the decline in the labor market due to the immigration. Basing on the economic report of Ontario, the more the populations increase the number of the skilled individuals decrease in the labor market.

The economic challenge in Ontario can be overcome through various ways. To begin with, the high costs of electricity experienced in this region need to be addressed. The reforms need to be supported to ensure the skilled trades are promoted to ensure the integration of the immigrants into employment is fixed. Finally, the system of health care needs to be checked so that it can meet the needs of the immigrants and the aging population.

References

Anderson, R. B., Dana, L. P., & Dana, T. E. (2006). Indigenous land rights, entrepreneurship, and economic development in Canada: Opting-in to the global economy. Journal of world business, 41(1), 45-55.

Bone, R. M. (2005). The regional geography of Canada. Oxford University Press, USA.

Painter, A. (2006). The Social Economy in Canada. Social Economy, 8(2), 30.

Robinson, J.В L. (1981). Regional geography of Canada in Canada. Journal of Geography, 80(7), 268-271. doi:10.1080/00221348108980702

Steed, G.В P., & Brewis, T.В N. (1971). Regional Economic Policies in Canada. Economic Geography, 47(3), 453.doi:10.2307/142822

Tedds, L. (2005). The underground economy in Canada.