Smoking is well-known to have serious side effects to any user since he or she inhales all the bad toxic chemicals from the smoke. Considering all the side effects that are caused by cigarette smoking to an individual, it becomes very hard to imagine how they impact the life of a developing infant in her mother’s womb who is a regular smoker. There are several side effects of smoking while pregnant to the mother and the developing infant.
Some of these side effects that occur to pregnant women involve premature and low birth weight infants which later leads to chronic respiratory symptoms, feeding complexities, neuro-cognitive deficits, as well as retinopathy of prematurity. Also, smoking while pregnant leads to miscarriage, impeded fetal lung and brain growth, altered placental attachment and operation, and pre-term birth.
Moreover, infants born to women who smoked all through their pregnancy period have augmented levels of sudden infant death syndrome, behavioral disorders, and altered lung operation. These problems and risk factors cause by the mother to the infant can be easily avoided by quitting smoking during pregnancy period. Alternatively, some women switch to electronic cigarettes thinking that they have no side effects to the infant just like the usual cigarettes. Electronic cigarettes contain nicotine which affects the nervous system of the unborn baby.
In this research paper, I will discuss about eight empirical studies conducted by different authors on the perceptions of pregnant women to avoid the side effects of smoking by quitting smoking or making use of alternative electronic cigarettes. In each empirical study, I will discuss about the research design, sample, purpose, and the results achieved by the author(s). Lastly, I will provide a summary of all the studies used in the research paper.
Finally, I will provide the nurses implications and interventions regarding the topic of discussion that educates pregnant women that electronic cigarettes are still harmful and not worth trying.
McCubbin, A., Fallin-Bennett, A., Barnett, J., & Ashford, K. (2017). Perceptions and use of electronic cigarettes in pregnancy.В Health Education Research,В 32(1), 22-32.doi:10.1093/her/cyw059
It is to describe beliefs and perceptions, regarding electronic cigarette consumption during pregnancy between newly postpartum and pregnant woman.
An examining qualitative expressive study is applied.
Prenatal University-affiliate clinics was used
Twelve postpartum and pregnant women reported consumption of electronic cigarettes and tobacco.
Semi structured focus grouping were audio taped and proficiently transcribed. The copies were hinted to agreement and analyzed through MAXQDA software edition through content analysis.
Four overarching matters come out, namely, Pull to E-cigarettes being Harm lessening Planning, Uncertainty concerning the fitness outcomes of E-Cigarettes, and Behaviors replicate Double Use and frequently Complete Decline to customary Cigarettes.
Expectant woman are at first fascinated to e-cigarettes to be a harm decrease plan, but they normally go back to the normal cigarettes during the postpartum duration. Nurses should advice expectant women concerning the unfavorable outcomes of fetal contact to nicotine. Proof “based nurture interventions are required to avoid decline at the postpartum duration.
Fallin, A., Miller, A., Assef, S., & Ashford, K. (2016). Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes Among Medicaid-Eligible Pregnant and Postpartum Women. JOGNN: Journal Of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 45(3), 320-325. doi:10.1016/j.jogn.2016.02.009
To describe the beliefs and perceptions concerning the use of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) during the period of pregnancy amongst the newly postpartum and pregnant women
A qualitative, exploratory descriptive study
The prenatal University-affiliated clinics
The recently postpartum or pregnant women who reported the use of electronic and tobacco cigarettes
The semi structured focus cluster was professionally transcribed and audio recorded. Coding of the transcripts was done and analyzed the software of MAXQDA (version) using the content analysis.
There was emergence of four themes: uncertainty with regards to the impacts of E-Cigarettes on health, attraction into the electronic cigarettes as a strategy of reducing harm. The habits reflected double use and regularly a whole relapse to the traditional cigarettes and the ambivalence regarding the product characteristics of the novel.
The pregnant women would initially be attracted to the electronic cigarettes as a strategy of reducing harm, though they would regularly return to the traditional cigarettes in the period of postpartum. Nurses ought to counsel the pregnant women upon the adverse impacts of exposure of fetal to nicotine. The evidence-based interventions of nursing are required to prevent the relapse throughout the period of postpartum.
Mark, K. S., Farquhar, B., Chisolm, M. S., Coleman-Cowger, V. H., &Terplan, M. (2015). Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Pregnant Women.В Journal of Addiction Medicine, 9(4), 266-272. doi:10.1097/ADM.0000000000000128
The e-cigarettes are currently a huge phenomenon, serving both dual responsibilities as an option vehicle for delivery of nicotine as well as smoking-cessation equipment. The purpose of the research was to resolve knowledge of pregnant women, attitudes, as well as practice concerning e-cigarettes.
A deliberate, study was distributed to convenience sample of women who were pregnant offering to a university founded out-patient health center. After the conclusion of the study, the participants received notification concerning smoking termination as well as electronic cigarettes. Data was analyzed by use of П‡ВІ and Fisher accurate examinations as evaluation of variation. Stata was employed for the evaluation.
Out of 326 distributed surveys, 316 surveys were completed up to 97%. Out of the 316 participants, 42 people (13%) reported having not smoked the electronic cigarette. But only 2 (0.6%) that they use e-cigarette daily. All the users were ranging between the age of 27 vs 25 years p=0.007) as well as most likely to be present users of cigarettes was 42% vs 14% p<01001) as castrated with women who had not smoked the e-cigarettes ever.
The comprehension of the effects of smoking was the same between two group of participants. In total, 57% of the respondents motioned that electronic cigarette have nicotine, rate addictiveness is 61, and 43% that electronic cigarette is dangerous to a fetus as compared with the traditional cigarettes. According to the long term users, the common reasons articulated for the use of the electric cigarette were the understandings of fewer effects than the other traditional cigarette 74% as well as assistance with smoking cessation 72%.
Misconception concerning the electronic cigarette is normal among the expectant mothers, potentially encouraging the use which may bring risk to both the unborn baby and the mother. Screening and teaching them about e-cigarette ought to be incorporated in parental care. Further study is vital, incorporating study analyzing pregnancy results among females who smokes the e-cigarettes.
Wigginton, B., Gartner, C., & Rowlands, I. J. (2017). Is It Safe to Vape? Analyzing Online Forums Discussing E-Cigarette Use during Pregnancy. Women’s Health Issues, (1), 93. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2016.09.008
The use of electronic cigarette is rising against a background of decreasing smoking rates. The electronic cigarette contains less toxicant than cigarette, although their outlook and means of use have the possible to gratify the routine facets of smoking. Up to date, everybody knows little concerning lay insights of the protection of smoking e-cigarette during pregnancy.
Thematic dialogue analysis was used in conducting the survey. The dialogue consisted of thirteen online forums that were arguing on the use of electronic cigarette during pregnancy.
The study identified unique modes in which discussion posters argued the protection of smoking electronic cigarette during pregnancy. First by quitting nicotine cold turkey in not safe, second is that vaping is dangerous and people should keep away from it, lastly is that vaping is not value of the risk.
Discussions on the safety of electronic cigarette depicts on the notion that the immediate termination of nicotine was injurious and not good, electronic cigarette were a dangerous declining implement, or vapig might be very dangerous and people keep off from it.
Torres, E., QuiГ±ones de Monegro, Z., French, L., Swanson, D. P., Guido, J., & Ossip, D. J. (2011).
Tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke among pregnant women in the Dominican Republic: an exploratory look into attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and practices.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 13(12), 1220-1227. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr193
The objectives of the study was to determine the prevalence and patterns of cigarette, passive smoking, and water pipe among the pregnant mothers in Jordan, as well to assess their understanding of dangerous cigarette impacts as well as the water pipe smoking.
The outcomes demonstrated that 79 percent of women were recent smokers of cigarette and 8.7 percent of them were recent water pipe smokers. Approximately 82.4 percent of the entire women stated that they are exposed to the water pipe smoke as well as smoke of cigarette. The most usual place where women become exposed to water pipe smoke as well as the cigarette was within their homestead (48.7% and 50.4%, respectively) followed by the public areas (21.4% and 31.4%, respectively).
Additionally, the spouse was the major source for disclosure to the water pipe smoke as well as the cigarette (42.7% and 48.5%, respectively). Roughly, 74 percent of women thought that smoking of cigarette is addictive, while only 55.1 percent reported that smoking through water pipe would also lead to addiction.
When pregnant women get exposed to the smoke of tobacco may lead to lung cancer, bone marrow myeloid leukemia, kidney, liver, pancreas, stomach, esophagus, and oral cavity (International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2004). Furthermore, smoking may also lead to increased hazard for cardiovascular and atherosclerosis disease (Glantz & Parmley, 1995 Wells, 1994 ). Not less than 5 million deaths every year are attributed to use of tobacco (WHO, 2009 ). GoszczyAska, E., Knol-Micha Aowska, K., & Petrykowska, A. (2016).
How do pregnant women justify smoking? A qualitative study with implications for nurses’ and midwives’ anti-tobacco interventions. Journal Of Advanced Nursing, (7), 1567. doi:10.1111/jan.12949
The aim of this dissertation is to research the prejudiced lay validations expressed by cigarette smoking during pregnancy. To carry out a research on the biased lay explanations articulated by the pregnant women who smoke. The research is aimed at elaborating on the reason why they smoke while they are pregnant as well as to find out a typology for these explanations.
The awareness of the smoking pregnant women about the detrimental impacts of frequent smoking on the fetal wellbeing influences stress as well as the cognitive dissonance. One possible means of reducing such unpleasant feelings is the creation or acceptance of beliefs enabling them to rationally explain why they maintain such a habit during pregnancy.
Thematic content analysis of the different posts from the three biggest on-line forums of Polish parenting printed between the periods they were established as well as 12 November 2012. The information was collected between the September and October of 2012. During the investigation of the 73 selected posts, every one of which integrated the subjective explanations on the reason of smoking when pregnant, 151 fragments, every one of which has a single lay justification, were branded and scrutinized.
Thirty-five subtopics of lay justifications that were assigned to two major topics were developed. However, the first major theme includes the conviction which undermines the call for breaking the addiction of nicotine as well as the positive aspects ensuing from quitting. The next major topic comprises of a thought which may question the likelihood of refraining from smoking as well as exaggerate the obstacles in the course of quitting.
Typology creation of the lay justifications may assist the midwives and nurses to execute a more effective interventions of anti-tobacco geared particularly towards the contemplated patterns typical of the women who are pregnant.
Polen, K. N., Sandhu, P. K., Honein, M. A., Green, K. K., Berkowitz, J. M., Pace, J., & Rasmussen, S. A. (2015). Knowledge and attitudes of adults towards smoking in pregnancy: results from the HealthStyles[c] 2008 survey. Maternal And Child Health Journal, (1), 144. doi:10.1007/s10995-014-1505-0
Smoking while pregnant is associated causally with several adverse health results. Quitting cigarette smoking even late during pregnancy, improve some results. In general, among the adults as well as the women with reproductive age, we hunted to understand about the attitudes and knowledge towards the prenatal smoking as well as its impacts on the results of pregnancy.
Using the facts of the Health Styles survey of 2008, we assessed the attitudes and knowledge concerning the smoking cessation and prenatal smoking. We then classified the as containing the high understanding if only they gave more or equal to 5 exact responses to 6 knowledge questions concerning the health impacts of the prenatal smoking. Calculations were also carried out on the frequencies of the exact responses to evaluate the understanding by lifestyle and demographic factors.
Out of the entire responses, only 15 percent as well as 23 percent of the reproductive-aged women contained high understanding of the adverse impacts of the prenatal smoking on the outcomes of pregnancy. Low birth and preterm birth weight would be most frequently recognized as the adverse results associated with the prenatal smoking. About 70 percent of the women smokers of reproductive-age reported that they would abstain from smoking if they just get pregnant without any kind of particular reasons from their general practitioner. Only few respondents would recognize the importance of quitting cigarette smoking after the initial pregnancy trimester.
However, the results we met suggested that several women lack the understanding regarding the higher rise of risks for the adverse results associated with the prenatal smoking. The providers of healthcare ought to follow the recommendations offered by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which is inclusive of teaching women concerning the health hazards of the prenatal smoking as well as the importance of quitting smoking. The providers of healthcare ought to put more emphasis on abstaining from smoking even after the initial pregnancy trimester.
Summary of the empirical studies
Smoking cessation intercessions during pregnancy decreases the quantity of women who keep on smoking during the last months of the pregnancy, and lessen issues of low birth weight as well as pretem delivery. Smoking cessation intercessions during pregnancy require to be launched in all hospitals.
Provided the complexity most of the xpectant women addicted to smoking encompasses the right to quit smoking in pregnancy, population grounded surveys to decline smoking as well as social inequalities ought to be supported.
Kahr, M. K., Padgett, S., Shope, C. D., Griffin, E. N., Xie, S. S., Gonzalez, P. J., & … Suter, M. A. (2015). A qualitative assessment of the perceived risks of electronic cigarette and hookah use in pregnancy. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-8. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2586
Chamberlain, C., O’Mara-Eves, A., Oliver, S., Caird, J. R., Perlen, S. M., Eades, S. J., & Thomas, J. (2013). Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 10, CD001055. http://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001055.pub4
Nurses should advice expectant women concerning the unfavorable outcomes of fetal contact to nicotine. Proof “based nurture interventions are required to avoid decline at the postpartum duration. Screening and teaching them about e-cigarette ought to be incorporated in parental care. The providers of healthcare ought to put more emphasis on abstaining from smoking even after the initial pregnancy trimester.
Furthermore, smoking may also lead to increased hazard for cardiovascular and atherosclerosis disease. The evidence-based interventions of nursing are required to prevent the relapse throughout the period of postpartum. Proof “based nurture interventions are required to avoid decline at the postpartum duration.
Smoking is an important worldwide health predicament. Regardless of most smokers desiring to quit, they repeatedly find it hard to be successful in the enduring. Among the most efficient and extensively used policies to assist fight the desired linked with addiction of nicotine is to carry nicotine by scraps as well as chewing gum.
These consequences also designate that the communal desires more precise information concerning the substance masterpiece and possible health possessions of smoking e-cigarette vaporizer for nonsmokers. Although e-cigarettes are exposed to be less damaging option to combustible cigarettes for the users, it remains significant to guard nonsmokers from gasp of any potentially damaging gist in e-cigarette aerosol, to the level probable.