Andrew Jackson believed in creating a nation that had a federal government who would protect national interest without interfering in state matters, yet when he was elected, only appointed his supporters to federal vaccancies. He also developed the nation’s government from a republic, which only allowed landowners to vote, to a mass democracy, which allowed all white men from any socioeconomic status to vote. During his presidency, Andrew Jackson created a democracy that expanded suffrage through the Indian Removal Act, opposed the Second Bank of the United States, and maintained power during the Nullification Crisis.
As white settlers moved west, they encountered tribes of Native Americans who were settled on land that would eventually become U.S territory. Through the Indian Removal Act, President Jackson was able to use military and economical power to forcefully remove Indians from their homelands. The Trail of Tears was a tragic event during Jackson’s presidency. Thousands of Cherokee Indians were removed from their homeland in Georgia to what is now known as present day Oklahoma. Determined by Boyer, during and just after the removal, “eight thousand Cherokees, which was more than one-third of the nation, died.” (Boyer 9.1-4) Through a series of multiple treaties the United States invoked their land titles and moved many Native Americans west of the Mississippi. In the Indian Removal Defend President Andrew Jackson explained how these barters would expand territory improve the United States. As stated by Jackson, opening the territories that were north and south to white settlements, “it would incalculably strengthen the southwestern frontier..” (Jackson, Indian Removal Defended, 1830)
As President Andrew Jackson opposed the Bank of America he objected to many laws. Even though President Jackson believed that it was better to avoid a lot of involvement with the economy, he opposed the policies followed by the national bank. The Second Bank of the United States reserved the power to prevent state banks from printing and lending out too much money. Unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, the nation believed that the banks were to blame for initiating the Panic of 1819. The Panic of 1819 was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States that brought deflation , depression, bank failures, and unemployment. Jackson vetoed the congressional passage of a bill that would recharter the bank, because as stated by Boyer, “he denounced the bank as a private and privileged monopoly that… made the rich richer.” (Boyer 10.1-6) President Jackson made it clear that he believed the states should be given freedom of say in the government to keep the nation content. He proclaimed that the bank institution was an unconstitutional extension of the federal government.
The nullification crisis merged issues of arguments over tariffs with cardinal measurement separation due to regions having so many differences with one another. High tariffs on imports of goods produced in Europe increased the pricing to be higher on the same goods made in the United States. When South Carolina nullified the tariff legislation of 1828, the initiation of the right of state to nullify any laws that opposed popular interest. President Jackson believed that remaining a strong union was important in order to have a powerful central government. Because of these beliefs, Andrew Jackson created a bitter rivalry with Vice President John C. Calhoun. Ruled unconstitutional, tariff legislation of 1832 null and voided the sovereign boundaries of South Carolina. According to Boyer, Calhoun believed that tarrifs “…drove up the price of manufactured goods and threatened to damage the American market..” (Boyer 10.1-5) It was feared that the federal government would pass tariff laws to favor certain sections, which have a great effect on slavery.
Andrew Jackson’s administration did illustrate the early development of an imperial and successful presidency that threatened checks and balances through the signing of treaties and passing of tariffs. He left an impact upon the nations politics and economical policies. Because of Andrew Jackson the national tow-party system that he created transformed the nation. In his eight year presidential term, congress only passed one impactful law, the Indian Removal Act. During this time Jackson also vetoed many bills. Jackson’s attitude towards the nations involvement in the government and personality, divided many. Andrew Jackson established a democracy that expanded suffrage through the Indian Removal Act, opposed the Second Bank of the United States, and maintained power during the Nullification Crisis. To some he was seen and selfish and biased, while others truly believed his strength and audacity was the key factor of being a true individualist and democrat.
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