Canadian Geography

In 2012, Nunavut was made a nation by itself. After Nunavut being mentioned as Canada’s last frontier, some effects behold the demarcation. There are economic, cultural and environmental factors that have shown up in the land. The economy is discussed regarding natural resources and the economic activities done in the area. The environmental factors explain the weather changes and the climate of the area as per the current statistics. The cultural factors are used to define the norms of the people living in the region and their beliefs as it concerns the way of living.

The northern area is endowed with oil and natural gas. The land has been established with millions of barrels of crude oil. According to the United States Geological Survey, reviewed that the Nunavut can hold oil that can serve the world for an extended time of over five years. In the region called the Sverdrup Basin, there are 19 established fields that are held by companies, and they have held licenses to do the extraction. Statistics reveal that the areas that are discovered have around 500 to 1800 barrels of oil and 17-27 trillion cubic feet of gas.

It is also evident that Sverdrup Basic holds approximately 11% of Canada’s crude oil and 20% of the natural gas in Canada. The economic challenge that that has retarded the exploration and extraction of the resources in the difficulties in transporting the oil from the sources. The challenges that are available include the sterile and hostile environment.

But with the new technology that has been established, the high market demand and the climate change may be favorable for natural exploration of the frozen landscape (Stevenson, 2012). Nunavut has been keeping a population of the indigenous population. Nunavut has a range of cultures that work together sharing beliefs to make a community of native population.

A paleo-Eskimos culture which originated pre-Dorset as well as Dorset cultures the people who lived in Nunavut before they migrate to the current Alaska. The life expectancy in Inuit is as low as 66.7 years. It has the oldest man with 68 years and a woman with 76 years. The low life expectancy is associated with some issues like increased cases of suicide, living in overcrowded houses, and high rates of accidents. Nunavut is in the northern area of Northern Canada. The area is dry with no rains. It is dominated by ice which is due to the low temperatures.

Due to the current increase in temperatures, the ice is melting, and the sea level is rising. The land in the North of Canada is said to be the driest and ice capped region. It is inhabited by Indigenous people who grow at a prolonged phase. They are mostly short. The individuals in the land don’t rely on agriculture because the land does not allow them to do that. Mining, oil excavation, and gas mining are the major economic activities that drive the people of the region. The people of the area don’t have a long life span because of the increased cases of suicide. Young people are taking away their lives due to health challenges.

The region doesn’t have mental health services and councilors who can help the people out. Transport in the area in very difficult due to the icing ground floor. That is why transportation and extraction of the resources are difficult. Due to climate changes, the city’s ice is clearing out and making the land accessible for mining and other economic activities (Karim-Aly, 2001). Atlantic Canada has laid down some major mega projects that will help them increase the speed of the economic growth.

The Megaprojects are made to create employments for the country members, improve the ability of the economic activities to enhance the viability of the commercial income of the people. For the economic fortunate of Atlantic Canada to be established, the mega projects should be utilized to promote the economic growth of the Atlantic Canada. Muskrat Falls is one of the megaprojects. It is a hydroelectric project that has been established at the cost of $7.65 billion and aims at producing an energy of 824 megawatts. Muskrat management, Bennett, and his team said that the project would create a lot of employment opportunities.

An average of 5000 people will be employed. These people employed will have a contribution to the economy of Kenya. The electric power produced is also used to run industries in the country and increase industrial power. The project is also estimated to be environmentally friendly, and the government will not spend any amount to control the spillage (Bone, 2005). St. George’s Bay Wind Farm Project was established at the cost of $400 million. It is expected to provide a power output of 180 megawatts dependent on the wind.

As the project is finalizing, it is looking ahead to provide 400 indirect job opportunities, six hundred direct jobs in its construction. During the operations, the Wind Farm project will create 100 direct jobs and 300 indirect jobs. The economy is well catered for at long last. Maritime Link Project is financed at $1.5 billion and is expected to produce 500 MW where it is aimed at supplying Nova Scotia with the renewable electric source. Sisson Tungsten-Molybdenum Mine is built at the cost of $579 million and is aimed at producing an average of 30000 tons of Tungsten per day.

The mine will provide the economy will business and job opportunities required. The mine will create around 500 jobs during its construction and an average of 300 jobs during its time of operation. Voisey’s Bay Underground Mine Project located in the Newfoundland and Labrador is expected to create 40000 tons per year. The project will generate a lot of jobs both during construction and after construction. 450 people are working in the open pit as per now and the company is estimated to employ 400 more people. At around 2019, 800 people are expected to be used in the mines pits. When the hole reaches its full operations, it will be able to employ 475 workers (Bone, 2005).

Energy East Pipeline which ships 1.1 million barrels per day was established at the cost of $15.7 billion. The establishment is aimed at providing 37700 direct and indirect job opportunities during construction. After construction, it is estimating to establish 260 full-time jobs. The companies in operation will be a great chance for Atlantic Canada to rely on their development.

The megaprojects are the ones which will provide electric power which will run industries, and it will also provide raw materials which the manufacturers will use in their production. The people employed in the industries will help improve the economy of the country because they will be able to contribute tax to the government. The industries themselves will also provide tax and increase the income to the government.

The industrial products and minerals will be exported for the government to realize some foreign income. Agriculture also relies on the economic advancement in Atlantic Canada (Frigo, 2004). Western Canada has four major regions which need to be looked at when talking about the economic stability of the Western part of Canada. Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Alberta and British Columbia. Mostly, the three regions, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta have similar contributions to the economy of Western Canada.

British Columbia is standing on its own to establish its economic strengths and weaknesses. The four region has been mentioned to have had a different agricultural production which is their primary business. Crop farming, fruit farming, and livestock are the major parts of the agriculture that they do. Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta have a good reputation of producing grain and oilseeds. In contrast, British Columbia accounts for the most fruits produced in the area.

Vegetable production is another widely produced crop in British Columbia (Markey, Halseth, et al. 2008). Animals’ production is another significant part of the agricultural production in western Canada. Alberta leads with the highest number of cattle farms and ranches in the country and Manitoba has the third largest number of hog operations that take place in the country. British Columbia is the second largest producer of poetry and eggs in the country. British Columbia also leads in aquaculture production. Another difference is that western Canada relies mostly on Agriculture apart from British Columbia which has most of its reliance on forestry

British Columbia remains to depend on forest industry as the engine of the province’s economy because B.C is the largest forest products, exporter. It exports logs, lumber, paper, pulp and other wood products. The forest products represent more than 40% of the region’s income. B.C provides more than half of the wood that is produced in Canada. Comparing wood production in BC and agricultural farming in Western Canada, it would be similar to comparing their main economic boosters. West Canada relies on Agriculture for economic survival, and then BC relies on forestry and forest products to get their economy moving (Marchak, 2011).

In the future, the climate of B.C is expected to be like that of California as per now. The winters are projected to be warmer and wetter. British Columbia is expected to host people whose regions will have become hotter and drier. The Province will be forced to accommodate a large number of individuals almost double the number they have as per now. There has been an extended period of little population change in the region. In the future, the population is expected to have improved, and the many people will be aging.

The aging population will be a great chance for businesses to be conducted. People will do businesses because the age they are in is the age of performing business. It is true that a large number of individuals will have immigrated into British Columbia in the future. The increasing number of people is a great suggestion that there will be businesses taking place in the region. The growing population mostly the population with an age of more than 65 years will help shape the way the economic orientation especially the service sector.

The region will be full of the people providing services, and another group of individuals will be available to utilize the services provided by the one group of individuals. There will be those providing recreation facilities, care facilities and those who will be providing tourism services. The Canadian economy will be less altered because most of its revenue comes from the forests which make the natural sources of income. From the previous observations, it is easy to keep the trend of economic growth when relying on natural resources as it has been observed in the last 30 years (Hayter, 2000).

When looking at the way British Columbia will present itself in the future, it is easy to say that it will be a core region in Canada. It is believed to be the area that Canada will look for the source of revenues to run its activities. Most people will be employed in the industries in British Columbia. It is hard to make the region that is supporting you a peripheral region. Some of the factors that British Columbia depend on so as to turn to be the best in the region are climate change that will send many people from their areas to come and settle in the area (Crouch & Ritchie, 1999).

The best environment in the area will call many people. The warm and wet winter will encourage a group of many individuals to pay in the region. When people fill the area, and it becomes fully occupied, many people will engage in businesses which are sources of revenue to the government. Many people will also be employed in the regions where they will work. Tourism will also be a part of the economic activities performed in the area. With many businesses running in the area, infrastructure will also be improved, and many people will be able to come in the regional and do their business.


Stevenson, L. (2012). The psychic life of biopolitics: Survival, cooperation, and Inuit community. American Ethnologist, 39(3), 592-613.

Karim-Aly, K. (2001). North of 60: homeland or frontier?. Nelson Thomson Learning.

Bone, R. M. (2005).В The regional geography of Canada. Oxford University Press, USA.

Frigo, M. D. (2004). Youth migration, attraction and CED partnerships: a case study of the Arborg Bifrost Community Development Corporation.

Markey, S., Halseth, G., & Manson, D. (2008). Challenging the inevitability of rural decline: Advancing the policy of place in northern British Columbia. Journal of Rural Studies, 24(4), 409-421.

Marchak, P. (2011). Green gold: The forest industry in British Columbia. UBC Press.Hayter, R. (2000).В Flexible crossroads: The restructuring of British Columbia’s forest economy. Press.

Crouch, G. I., & Ritchie, J. B. (1999). Tourism, competitiveness, and societal prosperity.В Journal of business research, 44(3), 137-152.